This talk gives a broad overview of gender beyond the binary of male and female, divided roughly into three sections. The first addresses gender diversity in Western contexts, exploring the connection between gender and sexuality by looking at the English Mollies. The Italian Femminielli, and Albanian sworn virgins are also discussed. A cross-cultural consideration of eunuchs then expands the scope to non-western contexts, covering a range of historical and contemporary third (fourth, and fifth!) gender categories – particularly across Asia and the Americas. The journey finishes by returning to the UK, to take a closer look at how ‘non-binary’ has manifested as a category over the last few years.